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Saturday, January 9, 2010

noun lectures 3-4

Singularia tantum
a. Proper names decribing only one in the group things: Europe, the Nile
If the proper name implies names of several people in one family they are used in the plural form.
Brown - the Browns
b. Uncountable nouns. For example: silver, love, greatness
However, some uncountable nouns can be used as countable. For example: wine, tea, water. In the meaning of types of products made of above mentioned materials these nouns can be used in the plural form. For example: the wines of France, the teas of China, mineral waters.
The word ‘fruit’ is singular. However, if it implies different types of fruit we use it in plural form. For example: The fruits of the South.

Some nouns such as coal, hair cheese can be used in the plural form. /Mostly when they describe one part or some little parts of them/

Some abstract nouns can also be used in the plural form. Mostly when they describe particular, different, event. For example: the joys of childhood, all his sorrows,

Sometimes, differences in the meanings of countable and uncountable are more precise
For instance:
Uncountable Countable
Singularia tantum /in the plural and singular forms/

Beauty/ãîî ¿çýìæ/ beauty, beauties/ãîî á¿ñã¿é/
Copper/çýñ/ coppers/ çýñ çîîñ/
Iron/òºìºð/ irons/ èíä¿¿/
Youth/çàëóó íàñ/ youths/çàëóóñ/
Tin tins

Pluralia tantum
a. things in pairs: opera-glasses, scales, tongs
b. some nouns with collective meaning: belongings, customs, clothes, contents, earnings, eaves, imports, munitions, outskirts, slums, tidings, pains, savings, politics, tactics, names of diseases: measles, mumps, nouns derived from adjectives: goods, greens, sweets, valuables
c. Some nouns that are ‘pluralia tantum’ have homonyms in the singularia tantum: damages /õîõèðîëûí/ òºëáºð/, damage/õîõèðîë/, defences/áàòëàí õàìãààëàëòûí áàéãóóëàìæ/, defence/ áàòëàí õàìãààëàõ/, colors/òóã/ colour/colours/ºíãº/, customs/ãààëèéí òàòâàð/ custom/customs/¸ñ óëàìæëàë/, works/¿éëäâýð çàâîä/, work/àæèë/ work/works/á¿òýýë/

d. Words such as barracks, headquarters, works /Pluralia tantum/ are mostly used in the singular form gradually losing their Pluralia tantum form

Forming possessives
 Nouns ending in the sound of s is usually in the p/f if it is followed by another noun. /An apostrophe alone or an apostrophe plus s is the sign of possessive
 Do not confuse a descriptive form ending in s for a p/f/possessive form/
For example: sales effort/sales describes the kind of effort/
 In a number of cases only a slight difference in wording distinguishes a descriptive phrase from a possessive phrase.
Descriptive phrase Possessive phrase
The California climate California’s climate
Singular nouns
 To nouns not ending in s sound, add an apostrophe plus s
Arkansas’s mountains, Illinois’s highways
 To nouns ending s sound if a new syllable is formed in the pronunciation of the p/f add an apostrophe plus s
Your boss’s approval, the witness’s reply, Congress’s intention, Dallas’s business district
 If the addition makes hard the word to pronounce, add the apostrophe only.
Los Angeles’ highways, Mr. Philips’ request
Plural nouns
 To regular plural nouns ending in ‘s’ simply add an apostrophe. For example:
Investors’ objectives
 To irregular plural nouns add an apostrophe and s: men’s shirts
Compound nouns
 Add an apostrophe plus s to the last element of the compound: the notary public’s seal
 To form the plural possessive of a compound noun, first form the plural.
Stockholder-stockholders-stockholders’, editor in chief – editors in chief- editors in chief’s
 The p/fs of personal pronouns and of the relative pronoun ‘who’ do not require the apostrophe. They have their own p/f
I –my-mine,
 Some indefinite pronouns have regular p/f
One’s choice, anybody’s guess
 To form the singular p/f add an apostrophe plus s, the plural possessive an apostrophe: Mr. C’s opinion/ sing p/f/, The Ph.D.s’ theses
Personal, Organizational, and Product Names
 To the personal or organizational names that end with an abbreviation, a number, or a prepositional phrase, add an apostrophe plus s at the end of the complete name: David Weild II’s retirement, The Winger Co’s new plant.
 The names of many organizations and products contain words that could be considered either possessive or descriptive terms.
1. as a rule, use of an apostrophe if the term is singular possessive noun or an irregular plural noun: McDonald’s, Levi’s jeans, Children’s hospital
2. Do not use an apostrophe if the term is regular plural: American Bankers Association, U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, Chemical Workers Union
3. In all cases follow the organization’s preference when known. Ladies’ Home Journal, Reader’s Digest, Lay’s potato chips, M&M’s candy,
4. When adding the sign of the possessive to a phrase that must be italicized or underlined, do not italicize or underline the possessive ending: Gone With the Wind’s main characters

Nouns in Apposition
 Sometimes a noun that ordinarily would be in the possessive is followed by an appositive, a closely linked explanatory word or phrase. In such case add the sign of the possessive to the appositive: Rockport, Massachusetts’ beauty attracts many painters. /To avoid an awkward construction, use an ‘of’ phrase instead:
Better: You will need to get the signature of Mr.Bartel, the executor.
Awkward: You will need to get Mr.Bartel, the executor’s signature.
Separate and Joint Possession
 To show separate possession, add the sign of the possessive to the name of each individual: the buyer’s and the seller’s signatures
 If one or both of the individuals’ names are replaced by a possessive pronoun, watch out for awkwardness and reword if necessary
Awkward: my and the seller’s signatures
Better: the seller’s and my signatures
Or: the seller’s signature and mine
 To indicate joint ownership, add the sign of the possessive to the final name alone: the Barnesses and the Terry’s property line.
/in org names, follow the co’s preference/
Ben & Jerry’s ice cream
 If one of the owners is identified by a pronoun, make each name and pronoun possessive: Karen’s and my ski lodge.
Possessives standing alone
 Sometimes the noun that the possessive modifies is not expressed but merely understood
Fred is getting a master’s /degree/ in international economics
Ask for it at your grocer’s/store/
Wear your oldest skirt and Levi’s/jeans/
We have been invited to dinner at the Furnesses’ /house/
Inanimate possessives
 As a rule nouns referring to inanimate things should not be in the possessive. Use an of phrase instead: the bottom of the barrel/not: the barrel’s bottom/
 In many common expressions that refer to time and measurement we use p/f : New Year’s resolution
Possessives preceding verbal nouns
 When a noun or a pronoun modifies a gerund the noun or pronoun should be in the possessive: What was the point of our asking any further questions?
/P/f before gerund is grammatically correct, but sometimes awkward. In such cases reword the sentence. awkward: He wants to be reassured about his children’s being given a ride home. better: He wanted to be reassured that his children would be given a ride home /
Possessives modifying possessive
 Avoid attaching a p/f to another possessive: awkward: I have not yet seen the company’s lawyer’s petition. better: I have not yet seen the petition of the company’s lawyer.
Possessives in holidays.

 Poss-s in name of holidays are usually sing. New Year’s Eve, Valentine’s Day. But April Fools’ Day, All Saints’ Day
Miscellaneous expressions
 A number of common expressions contain p/f
Driver’s license, traveler’s check, visitor’s permit

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